P18 Plasma-lyte 148 vs 0.9% saline for fluid resuscition in children: electrolytic and clinical outcomes

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Abstract

Aims

Crystalloid fluid boluses are a mainstay of treatment in unwell children, with the traditional fluid of choice being 0.9% saline (NS). However, the use of NS has been associated with an increase in plasma chloride levels and acidosis, leading to kidney injury and other detrimental clinical effects. Plasma-Lyte 148 (PLA) is a balanced, physiological, crystalloid intravenous fluid, which is both calcium-free and isotonic. Its use in place of NS for fluid resuscitation may circumvent hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis. In May 2015 our hospital altered its standard resuscitation fluid from NS to PLA. We aimed to compare the effect of fluid boluses of NS to those of PLA in children.

Methods

All patients admitted in the 18 month periods before and after the change from NS to PLA, and receiving a fluid bolus in the first 24 hours of admission, were included. Post-surgical patients and those who had undergone haemofiltration were excluded. Arterial blood gas and creatinine values for up to 5 days after bolus fluid administration were examined. Patients were stratified according to the total resuscitation volume (ml/kg), then split into categories determined by the balance of PLA vs. NS.

Methods

The primary outcome was plasma chloride. Secondary outcomes included blood pH and percentage change in creatinine. Clinical outcomes were length of ventilation and length of PICU stay.

Results

126 patients were included in the analysis. Patients receiving NS boluses tended to have a higher maximum chloride, higher average chloride, lower pH and higher percentage creatinine increase than those given PLA. Subgroup analysis showed a statistically significant difference in average serum chloride for the 61–90 ml/kg group {PLA 105.59±1.29 vs NS 111.29±2.1 mmol/L; difference: −6.21 [95% confidence interval (CI)−9.55,–2.87]}. Patients who received PLA tended to have a higher pH than those receiving NS. A statistically significant difference was seen in the 10–30 ml/kg group [PLA 7.42±0.49 vs NS 7.33±0.65; difference: 0.0913 (95% CI: −0.18 to −0.02)].

Results

Significant differences were not seen in the clinical outcomes of length of stay or ventilation

Conclusion

PLA as a resuscitation fluid is significantly associated with a more physiological plasma chloride and pH across several resuscitation fluid volume categories, when compared to NS. The trends in the other fluid volume categories are in line with these findings, but are not statistically significant. There was also a trend towards patients receiving PLA having a lower percentage rise in creatinine than those who received saline. These results were consistent over all weight and age categories.

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