Neurologic diseases and injuries are complex and multifactorial, making risk prediction, targeted treatment modalities, and outcome prognostication difficult and elusive. Genetics and genomics have affected clinical practice in many aspects in medicine, particularly cancer treatment. Advancements in knowledge of genetic and genomic variability in neurologic disease and injury are growing rapidly. Although these data are not yet ready for use in clinical practice, research continues to progress and elucidate information that eventually will provide answers to complex neurologic questions and serve as a platform to provide individualized care plans aimed at improving outcomes. This article provides a focused review of relevant literature on genetics, genomics, and common complex neurologic disease and injury likely to be seen in the acute care setting.