Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a rapidly emerging treatment for respiratory or cardiac failure and is used as a bridge to recovery, transplant, or destination therapy. Adult patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation also receive significant amounts of pharmacotherapy. Although the body of literature on extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation in general is extensive, only a few publications focus on pharmacokinetic changes related to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults. Understanding pharmacokinetics in adult patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is important to correctly select and dose medications in this patient population. This article reviews published studies of the effects of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on pharmacokinetics in adults.