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The current study aimed to identify risk factors for treatment noncompliance in a sample of veterans receiving buprenorphine/naloxone for an opioid use disorder.Records from all patients who are currently or had previously been maintained on buprenorphine in the buprenorphine maintenance treatment program at the Atlanta VA Medical Center during the years 2006 to 2013 were evaluated. Of the 209 patients treated in the clinic between 2006 and 2013, 140 were excluded from the study because they did not have a call-back done at the time of data collection. Thus, 69 patient charts were selected for review.The multiple linear regression analysis of the predictable variables for noncompliance with the buprenorphine pill count showed that positive urine drug screen (UDS) for marijuana, benzodiazepines, and being a smoker (F = 3.08; P = 0.03) are significantly associated with noncompliance with buprenorphine pill count.Also, the multiple linear regression analysis of the predictable variables for noncompliance with the buprenorphine pill count showed that the psychiatric comorbidity independently (F = 4.88; P = 0.03) is significantly associated with noncompliance with buprenorphine pill count.Patients founds to be noncompliant were more likely to suffer from comorbid psychiatric illness. Patients who tested positive for benzodiazepines or cannabis were more likely to be noncompliant with treatment. Although the rate of noncompliance (inaccurate pill count) was high, patients were still found to be taking their prescribed buprenorphine as evidenced by positive UDS for buprenorphine/norbuprenorphine. In addition, our sample had a high rate of negative UDS screens for opioids and cocaine.