Self-report and biochemical measures of alcohol consumption
The validity of self-reports of alcohol consumption
Behavioral measures of drinking
Drinking reports from collateral individuals
Traditional markers of excessive alcohol use
Current status of carbohydrate deficient transferrin, total serum sialic acid, sialic acid index of apolipoprotein J and serum β-hexosaminidase as markers for alcohol consumption
Ethyl glucuronide—the direct ethanol metabolite on the threshold from science to routine use
5-Hydroxytryptophol as a marker for recent alcohol intake
Direct measurement of alcohol and its metabolites
Use of biomarkers for alcohol use disorders in clinical practice