Recent estimates indicate that tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death worldwide, alongside the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The current treatment is effective, but is associated with severe adverse-effects and noncompliance to prescribed regimens. An alternative route of drug delivery may improve the performance of existing drugs, which may have a key importance in TB control and eradication. Recent advances and emerging technologies in nanoscale systems, particularly nanoparticles (NPs), have the potential to transform such approach to human health and disease. Until now, several nanodelivery systems for the pulmonary administration of anti-TB drugs have been intensively studied and their utility as an alternative to the classical TB treatment has been suggested. In this context, this review provides a comprehensive analysis of recent progress in nanodelivery systems for pulmonary administration of anti-TB drugs. Additionally, more convenient and cost-effective alternatives for the lung delivery, different types of NPs for oral and topical are also being considered, and summarized in this review. Lastly, the future of this growing field and its potential impact will be discussed.