Commercially available ocular drug delivery systems are effective but less efficacious to manage diseases/disorders of the anterior segment of the eye. Recent advances in nanotechnology and molecular biology offer a great opportunity for efficacious ocular drug delivery for the treatments of anterior segment diseases/disorders. Nanoparticles have been designed for preparing eye drops or injectable solutions to surmount ocular obstacles faced after administration. Better drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, non-specific toxicity, immunogenicity, and biorecognition can be achieved to improve drug efficacy when drugs are loaded in the nanoparticles. Despite the fact that a number of review articles have been published at various points in the past regarding nanoparticles for drug delivery, there is not a review yet focusing on the development of nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye. This review fills in the gap and summarizes the development of nanoparticles as drug carriers for improving the penetration and bioavailability of drugs to the anterior segment of the eye.