Macrophage-based therapeutic strategies in regenerative medicine

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Mounting evidence suggests that therapeutic cell and drug delivery strategies designed to actively harness the regenerative potential of the inflammatory response have great potential in regenerative medicine. In particular, macrophages have emerged as a primary target because of their critical roles in regulating multiple phases of tissue repair through their unique ability to rapidly shift phenotypes. Herein, we review macrophage-based therapies, focusing on the translational potential for cell delivery of ex vivo-activated macrophages and delivery of molecules and biomaterials to modulate accumulation and phenotype of endogenous macrophages. We also review current obstacles to progress in translating basic findings to therapeutic applications, including the need for improved understanding of context-dependent macrophage functions and the myriad factors that regulate macrophage phenotype; potential species-specific differences (e.g. humans versus mice); quality control issues; and the lack of standardized procedures and nomenclature for characterizing macrophages. Looking forward, the inherent plasticity of macrophages represents a daunting challenge for harnessing these cells in regenerative medicine therapies but also great opportunity for improving patient outcomes in a variety of pathological conditions.Graphical abstract

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