Microfluidic technologies employ nano and microscale fabrication techniques to develop highly controllable and reproducible fluidic microenvironments. Utilizing microfluidics, lead compounds can be produced with the controlled physicochemical properties, characterized in a high-throughput fashion, and evaluated in in vitro biomimetic models of human organs; organ-on-a-chip. As a step forward from conventional in vitro culture methods, microfluidics shows promise in effective preclinical testing of nanoparticle-based drug delivery. This review presents a curated selection of state-of-the-art microfluidic platforms focusing on the fabrication, characterization, and assessment of nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. We also discuss the current challenges and future prospects of nanoparticle drug delivery development using microfluidics.