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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising platforms for the synthesis of nanoparticles for diverse medical applications. Their fundamental design principles allow for significant control of the framework architecture and pore chemistry, enabling directed functionalization for nanomedical applications. However, before applying novel nanomaterials to patients, it is imperative to understand their potential health risks. In this study, the nanosafety of different MOF nanoparticles is analyzed comprehensively for diverse medical applications. The authors first evaluate the effects of MOFs on human endothelial and mouse lung cells, which constitute a first line of defense upon systemic blood-mediated and local lung-specific applications of nanoparticles. Second, we validated these MOFs for multifunctional surface coatings of dental implants using human gingiva fibroblasts. Moreover, biocompatibility of MOFs is assessed for surface coating of nerve guidance tubes using human Schwann cells and rat dorsal root ganglion cultures. The main finding of this study is that the nanosafety and principal suitability of our MOF nanoparticles as novel agents for drug delivery and implant coatings strongly varies with the effector cell type. We conclude that it is therefore necessary to carefully evaluate the nanosafety of MOF nanomaterials with respect to their particular medical application and their interacting primary cell types, respectively.Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a promising platform for the synthesis of porous nanoparticles for diverse medical applications. The aim of this study is to comprehensively investigate the nanosafety of different MOF nanoparticles for distinct fields of medical applications. Data presented here suggest the need to evaluate the nanosafety of each MOF nanomaterial with respect to their particular medical application.