Mucin-producing Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions Involving the Prostate: A Comprehensive Review

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Mucin-producing tumors of the prostate include both primary and secondary tumors with mucinous differentiation or features involving the prostate gland. These tumors are relatively rare and have variable prognostic and therapeutic implications. Primary mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma of the prostate is defined as prostatic adenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation involving 25% or more of the entire tumor. Another primary tumor of the prostate that may have mucinous features is primary mucin-producing urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of the prostate (mucinous prostatic urethral adenocarcinoma). Primary mucin-producing urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a distinct entity that typically arises from the prostatic urethra possibly from urethritis glandularis or glandular metaplasia with malignant transformation, and it is analogous to adenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation arising from the urinary bladder. Signet ring cell tumors of the prostate, though rare, may also have mucinous features. Secondary tumors with mucinous differentiation that may involve the prostate include adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder and colorectum. Pathologists should also be aware of mucin-producing tumor-like lesions involving the prostate, including mucinous metaplasia, and benign Cowper glands that may mimic malignancy. Herein we present an updated and comprehensive review of the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, molecular, and prognostic features of mucinous tumors and tumor-like lesions involving the prostate gland, with emphasis on mucinous prostatic adenocarcinoma and its mimickers, including potential diagnostic pitfalls.

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