Influence of the Pectoralis Major Muscle Sling in Chest Wall-Based Flap Suspension After Vertical Mammaplasty: Ten-Year Follow-Up

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



The pectoralis muscle sling has proven to be a suitable alternative technique for long-term results in breast parenchyma suspension. Although the pectoralis muscle sling has been subjectively observed to reduce the bottoming-out effect with a bipedicled muscle flap (muscular loop), there has not been a study to objectively or numerically prove it.


This study aimed to radiologically evaluate the influence of a pectoralis muscle sling in supporting the chest wall-based flap after a vertical breast-reduction technique.


Twenty-one female patients underwent a vertical breast reduction with the chest wall-based flap and were randomly divided into two subgroups. Ten patients were in subgroup (S), which consisted of patients with a muscle sling. Eleven patients without the muscle sling technique were assigned as a control group (C). Periodic radiological examinations were performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and then at 10 years postoperatively to analyze the breast flap and any migration with respect to three titanium clips placed intraoperatively on the chest wall parenchyma flap.


Patients in subgroup S had a significantly higher difference in migration of the chest wall-based flaps between the first day and 10 years postoperatively when compared with patients in subgroup C (P < .001), as shown by the distances measured between titanium clip locations.


After 10 years of follow-up, there were changes in chest wall-based flap bottoming-out in patients in whom a pectoralis major muscle sling was utilized compared with those patients without it. Thus, a pectoralis major muscle sling seems to provide greater and longer-lasting support to the flap position on the patient's chest.

Level of Evidence:


Level of Evidence:


Level of Evidence:


Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles