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The basic tenet of several theories on aging is increasing genomic instability resulting from interactions with the environment. Chromosomal aberrations have been used as classic examples of increasing genomic instability since they demonstrate an increase in numerical and structural abnormalities with age in many species including humans. This accumulating damage may augment many aging processes and initiate age-related diseases, such as neoplasias. Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most robust interventions for reducing the frequency of age-related diseases and for extending life span in many short-lived organisms. However, the mechanisms for the anti-aging effects of CR are not yet well understood. A study of rhesus monkeys was begun in 1987 to determine if CR is also effective in reducing the frequency of age-related diseases and retarding aging in a long-lived mammal. Male monkeys were begun on the diet in 1987, and females were added in 1992 to examine a possible difference in response to CR by sex. The CR monkeys have been maintained for over 10 years on a low-fat nutritional diet that provides a 30% calorie reduction compared to a control (CON) group. Because of the greater similarity of nonhuman primates to humans in life span and environmental responses to diet compared with those of rodents, the rhesus monkey provides an excellent model for the effects of CR in humans. This study examined the effects of CR on chromosomal instability with aging. Significant age effects were found in both CR and CON groups for the number of cells with aneuploidy: old animals had a higher loss and a higher gain than young animals. However, there was no effect of age on chromosomal breakage or structural aberrations in either diet group. Diet had only one significant effect: the CR group had a higher frequency of chromatid gaps than did the CON group. CR, implemented in adult rhesus monkeys, does not have a major effect on the reduction of numerical or structural aberrations related to aging.