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Progressive neurological signs and symptoms, in immunocompromised individuals, could be due to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We report the case of a patient who present a stroke unit with symptoms that were consistent initially with a posterior circulation stroke. Prior chemotherapy with Rituximab, for a lymphoma, had predisposed the patient to infection with the JC virus. Physicians need to be aware of the condition, and patients need to aware of these risks of chemotherapy.