Background: mobility-related limitations predict future disability; however, the extent to which individual and combined mobility tests may predict disability remains unclear.
Objectives: to estimate the odds of developing disability in activities of daily living (ADL) according to limitations in walking speed, balance or both; and explore the role of chronic diseases and cognitive function.
Design: a prospective cohort study.
Setting: urban area of Stockholm, Sweden.
Subjects: one thousand nine hundred and seventy-one disability-free persons (age ≥60 years, 63% women) from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), who underwent baseline examination in 2001–04 and follow-up assessments for 6 years.
Measurements: mobility limitation was defined as a one-leg balance stand <5 s or walking speed <0.8 m/s. ADL disability was defined as the inability to complete one or more ADL: bathing, dressing, using the toilet, transferring and eating.
Results: during a total of 11,404 person-years (mean per person 5.8 years, SD 0.30) of follow-up, 119 (incidence 1.5/100 person-years) participants developed ADL disability. The demographic adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals, CI) of incident ADL disability related to balance stand and walking speed limitations were 3.8 (2.3–6.3) and 8.4 (5.2–13.3), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for number of chronic diseases and cognitive status. People with limitations in both balance and walking speed had an OR of 12.9 (95% CI 7.0–23.7) for incident disability compared with no limitation.
Conclusion: balance and walking speed tests are simple clinical procedures that can indicate hierarchical risk of ADL dependence in older adults.