Relationships Between Individualism-Collectivism, Gender, and Direct or Indirect Aggression: A Study in China, Poland, and the US

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Direct and indirect aggression were studied in college students from China (womenn=122; menn=97), a highly collectivistic culture; the US (womenn=137; menn=136), a highly individualistic culture; and Poland (womenn=105; menn=119), a culture with intermediate levels of collectivism and individualism. Consistent with a hypothesis derived from national differences in relative levels of collectivism and individualism, both direct and indirect aggression were higher in the US than in Poland and higher in Poland than in China. The theoretical implication of these results and directions for future research were discussed.

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