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Elder self-neglect is a growing public health problem characterized by a complex network of biopsychosocial risk factors and predictors. The lack of reliable and valid assessment criteria for identifying elder self-neglect during brief clinical visits often results in missed opportunities for reducing or preventing the negative health outcomes commonly associated with this geriatric syndrome. Knowing the most salient risk factors and predictors of self-neglect in older patients may help clinicians and other healthcare providers appropriately identify and prevent self-neglect and the associated negative health outcomes. This article discusses the salient factors that contribute to elder self-neglect and how they can be used to improve clinical surveillance and guide intervention and prevention efforts.