Here, we report quantum dot-incorporating solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for anticancer theranostics with synergistic therapeutic effects of paclitaxel-siRNA combination. The natural components of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are reconstituted to produce LDL-mimetic SLNs having a stable core/shell nanostructure incorporating quantum dots and paclitaxel within the lipid shell while anionic siRNA molecules are electrostatically complexed with the outer surface of SLNs. The produced SLN/siRNA complexes efficiently deliver both of paclitaxel and Bcl-2 targeted siRNA into human lung carcinoma cells and exhibit synergistic anticancer activities by triggering caspase-mediated apoptosis as determined by median effect plot analysis. Moreover, the strong fluorescence from quantum dots within SLNs enables in situ visualization of intracellular translocation of SLNs into cancer cells. Our study suggests that LDL-mimetic SLNs can be utilized as a multifunctional and optically traceable nanocarrier for efficient anticancer theranostics.Low-density lipoprotein–mimetic solid lipid nanoparticles
loaded with paclitaxel, siRNA, and quantum dots for synergistic combination therapy with in situ fluorescence monitoring are developed. The SLNs exhibit no significant cytotoxicity, and the simultaneous delivery of paclitaxel and Bcl-2 siRNA synergistically promotes the apoptotic death of human lung carcinoma cells by activating caspase-mediated pathways.