Rapid and effective bone mineralization at the bone/implant interface is required for successful orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, two periodic microscale functionalized zones on titanium (MZT) are created, namely, nanoneedle zones and buffer zones. The aim of this design is to provide spatially regulated topographical cues on titanium to enhance the efficacy of bone regeneration. This goal is achieved using a versatile and effective technique in which nanoneedle structures are hydrothermally constructed on the surface of titanium sheets, after which selective laser irradiation is used to construct buffer zones. The zonal structures of the MZT overcome the suppressive effect of the nanoneedle film on osteoblasts. Additionally, the MZT exhibits zone-selective apatite deposition and protein adsorption. The accelerated in vitro osteoblast differentiation and nodule deposition on the MZT are confirmed. Elemental analysis of the bone nodules formed by the osteoblasts growing on the titanium and MZT demonstrates they have different compositions. Histological and scanning electron microscope analysis of the bone formation on in vivo implants shows that this process is also enhanced by the MZT implant. The concept of constructing functionalized zones on titanium implant could facilitate future research on improving the design of orthopedic and dental implant surfaces.
The effects of constructing functionalized microscale zones on titanium bone implants (MZT) on osteogenesis are presented. The periodic nanoneedle zones promote protein adsorption and apatite deposition. The buffer zones of MZT are constructed to stimulate cell proliferation and provide hierarchical topographical cues to promote osteogenic differentiation at implants surface.