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Sutureless procedures for wound repair and closure have recently integrated nanostructured devices to improve their effectiveness and clinical outcome. This review highlights the major advances in gecko-inspired bioadhesives that relies mostly on van der Waals bonding forces. These are challenged by the moist environment of surgical settings that weaken adherence to tissue. The incorporation of nanoparticles in biomatrices and their role in tissue repair and drug delivery is also reviewed with an emphasis on procedures involving adhesives that are laser-activated. Nanostructured adhesive devices have the advantage of being minimally invasive to tissue, can seal wounds, and deliver drugs in situ. All these tasks are very difficult to accomplish by sutures or staples that are invasive to host organs and often cause scarring.A critical survey of nanostructured adhesives for tissue repair is presented. The influence of nanotechnology devices on the design of bioadhesives, which are particularly attractive as minimally invasive sealing techniques, is discussed. The overview is focused on laser-activated nanostructured bioadhesives and gives an original perspective of the field.