Migrant populations may be particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases and often need special considerations in terms of health care. In particular, migrant populations can be at high risk for HIV infection, in part due to lack of education about disease acquisition. This study evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS as well as risk behavior in the Sudanese immigrant and refugee population of Nebraska (N = 47). The results demonstrated that a significant proportion of individuals from this population are poorly educated about HIV infection, exhibit attitudes and beliefs that may increase their risk for disease acquisition, and create barriers to HIV prevention and care, and engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Appropriate educational materials are lacking, and there is a pressing need for improved access to culturally appropriate HIV education for this vulnerable population.