Association of injection drug use with incidence of HIV-associated non-AIDS-related morbidity by age, 1995–2014

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Abstract

Objective:

Incidence of HIV-associated non-AIDS (HANA) related comorbidities is increasing in HIV-infected individuals. Our objective was to estimate the risk of HANA comorbidity associated with history of injection drug use (IDU) correctly accounting for higher death rates among people who inject drugs (PWID).

Design:

We followed HIV-infected persons aged 25–59 years who enrolled in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort between 1995 and May 2014, from enrollment until HANA comorbidity diagnosis, death, age 60, or administrative censoring.

Methods:

We compared cumulative incidence (‘risk’), by age, of validated diagnoses of HANA comorbidities among HIV-infected PWID and non-IDU; specifically, we considered end-stage renal disease (ESRD), end-stage liver disease (ESLD), myocardial infarction, stroke, and non-AIDS-defining cancer. We used competing risk methods appropriate to account for death, standardized to the marginal distribution of baseline covariates, and adjusted for potential differential loss-to-clinic.

Results:

Of 5490 patients included in this analysis, 37% reported IDU as an HIV transmission risk. By age 55 years, PWID had higher risk of ESLD [risk difference = 6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.9, 15.5] and ESRD (risk difference = 11.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 21.0) than did non-IDU. Risk of myocardial infarction and stroke were similar among PWID and non-IDU. Risk of non-AIDS-defining cancer was lower among PWID than among non-IDU (risk difference at 55 years: −4.9, 95% CI: −11.2, 1.3).

Conclusion:

Not all HANA comorbidities occur with higher incidence in PWID compared with non-IDU. However, higher incidence of ESRD and ESLD among PWIDs highlights the importance of recognition and management of markers of these comorbidities in early stages among PWID.

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