To examine if monocyte and macrophage activity may be on the mechanistic pathway to non-AIDS comorbidity by investigating the associations between plasma-soluble CD163 (sCD163) and incident non-AIDS comorbidities in well treated HIV-infected individuals.Design:
Prospective single-center cohort study.Methods:
Plasma sCD163 was quantified by ELISA technique at study entry in 2004/2005, and non-AIDS comorbidity was identified by International Classification of Disease Tenth revision diagnosis codes and registry linkage in 2014/2015. Associations between sCD163 and incident comorbidity was examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for pertinent covariates.Results:
In HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 799), the highest quartile of plasma sCD163 was associated with incident chronic lung disease [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34; 7.46] and incident chronic kidney disease (aHR, 10.94; 95% CI: 2.32; 51.35), when compared with lowest quartiles. Further, (every 1 mg) increase in plasma sCD163 was positively correlated with incident liver disease (aHR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05; 1.19). The sCD163 level was not associated with incident cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus.Conclusion:
sCD163 was independently associated with incident chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease and liver disease in treated HIV-1-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may be involved in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS comorbidity and a potential target for therapeutic intervention.