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HIV infection has a significant impact on the natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with increased levels of HBV DNA, accelerated progression of liver disease and increased liver-associated mortality compared with HBV monoinfection. Widespread uptake and early initiation of HBV-active antiretroviral therapy has substantially improved the natural history of HIV–HBV coinfection but the prevalence of liver disease remains elevated in this population. In this paper, we review recent studies examining the natural history and pathogenesis of liver disease and seroconversion in HIV–HBV coinfection in the era of HBV-active antiretroviral therapy and the effects of HIV directly on liver disease. We also review novel therapeutics for the management of HBV with a particular emphasis on clinical strategies being developed for an HBV cure and an HIV cure and their impact on HIV–HBV coinfected individuals.