To determine influence of age and HIV infection on influenza vaccine responses.Design:
Evaluate serologic response to seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) as the immunologic outcome in HIV-infected (HIV+) and age-matched HIV negative (HIV−) adults.Methods:
During 2013–2016, 151 virologically controlled HIV+ individuals on antiretroviral therapy and 164 HIV− volunteers grouped by age as young (<40 years), middle aged (40–59 years) and old (≥60 years) were administered TIV and investigated for serum antibody response to vaccine antigens.Results:
At prevaccination (T0) titers were in seroprotective range in more than 90% of participants. Antibody titers increased in all participants postvaccination but frequency of classified vaccine responders to individual or all three vaccine antigens at 3–4 weeks was higher in HIV− than HIV+ adults with the greatest differences manifesting in the young age group. Of the three vaccine strains in TIV, antibody responses at T2 were weakest against H3N2 with those to H1N1 and B antigens dominating. Among the age groups, the titers for H1N1 and B were lowest in old age, with evidence of an age-associated interaction in HIV+ persons with antibody to B antigen.Conclusion:
Greater frequencies of vaccine nonresponders are seen in HIV+ young compared with HIV− adults and the observed age-associated interaction for B antigen in HIV+ persons are supportive of the concept of premature immune senescence in controlled HIV infection. High-potency influenza vaccination recommended for healthy aging could be considered for HIV+ adults of all ages.