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The IPERGAY ANRS trial showed that on-demand preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) was highly effective in preventing HIV infection among highly exposed MSM. Here, we analyzed drug resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) among all participants who acquired HIV infection during this trial.Resistance was analyzed on frozen plasma at the time of HIV diagnosis among participants enrolled in the double-blind and open-label phases of the ANRS IPERGAY trial. Reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed, using population-based and ultradeep sequencing (454 GS Flex). Adherence was measured by pill counting and by plasma tenofovir and FTC assay.During the trial, 31 participants were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection (subtype B, 64.5%), using antigen/antibody immune assay in 29 cases and plasma HIV RNA assay in two. The median plasma HIV-1 RNA level was 5.52 log10 copies/ml. Drug resistance was tested in 12 participants before starting PrEP, in six assigned to TDF/FTC group and in 13 assigned to placebo group. Primary resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (zidovudine) and/or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was detected in six participants (19%; 95% confidence interval 7–42). No major or minor TDF-resistant or FTC-resistant variants were detected.No TDF or FTC resistance-associated mutations were found among participants who acquired HIV in the ANRS IPERGAY trial.