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The utility of longitudinal AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), a surrogate for hepatic fibrosis, is unknown. We compared APRI up to 9 years before liver-related death among 57 cases of viral hepatitis-infected men (91% HIV+) to matched controls. APRI was stable among controls but, among cases, increased 4.6%/year from 9 to 3 years predeath (P = 0.10) and 30%/year during the 3 years predeath (P < 0.001). Thus, rapid APRI increase may predict impending liver-related death in HIV-viral hepatitis coinfection.