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Laboratory parameters which are modified following administration of zidovudine are becoming increasingly useful in monitoring the efficacy of treatment of early stages of HIV-1 infection. The serum levels of soluble interleukin (slLR)-2 receptor, which have been reported to increase early in HIV-1 infection, were found to be significantly lower in 24 patients being treated with zidovudine than in 69 patients who were not treated, 28 of whom had CD4+ counts >400 × 106/I, and 41 ≤400 × 106/I, respectively (P < 0.0001). A prospective study group of 33 subjects treated with zidovudine demonstrated a decrease in slL-2R during therapy (base values 2113 ± 1131 versus 1444 ± 728 after 90 days of therapy; P < 0.0007). The reduction of slL-2R was greater in those subjects were p24 antigen became negative during treatment. slL-2R therefore seems to be a useful tool in the monitoring of therapy with zidovudine.