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Simple and affordable intervention strategies are needed to reduce the rate of HIV transmission from mother to infant in developing countries. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn rhesus macaques is considered to be a useful model of human pediatric HIV infection.To investigate whether short-term 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy) propyljadenine (PMPA) administration can protect newborn rhesus macaques against perinatal SIV infection.Eight newborn macaques were inoculated orally with highly virulent SIVmac within the first 3 days of life. Four of these animals were untreated controls. The other four animals were given one dose of PMPA (30 mg/kg subcutaneously) 4 h before oral SIV inoculation, and were then given a second and final dose of PMPA 24 h later.All four untreated control animals were persistently SIV-positive within 2 weeks after virus inoculation. In contrast, no virus could be detected in the four animals that received two doses of PMPA; these animals were seronegative and healthy at 10 months.Two doses of PMPA prevented SIV infection of newborn macaques. Our data suggest that short-term administration of PMPA to HIV-infected pregnant women at the onset of labor and to their newborns after delivery may reduce the rate of intrapartum HIV transmission.