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Although thicker (stronger) condoms are advocated in western Europe for anal intercourse between men, empirical evidence supporting their greater efficacy is lacking. The present study aimed to determine whether a thicker condom is less likely to fail (break or slip off) than a standard (regular thickness) condom, and to establish factors associated with condom failure among gay men.A total of 283 homosexual couples participated in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of a standard and a thicker condom.Each couple was allocated nine of either condom type. Data were collected on user characteristics, and a questionnaire completed immediately after the use of each condom. The thicker and the standard condoms were used by 142 and 141 couples, respectively.No significant differences were found between the two condom types with respect to either clinical or non-clinical definitions of failure (breakage and slippage). With instances of inappropriate use removed, failure rates for the standard and the thicker condom were low at 2.5 and 2.3%, respectively. User characteristics associated with breakage were lower educational achievement, lack of confidence in condom use, and a history of condom breakage. Behaviours associated with breakage were unrolling the condom before fitting to the penis, longer penis length, absence of additional lubricant, the use of inappropriate lubricant, and longer duration of intercourse.Breakage and slippage rates were low for both condom types. There is no evidence from the present investigation to support the use of stronger (thicker) condoms over standard strength condoms among gay men. The appropriate use of additional lubricant should be encouraged.