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Viral drug susceptibility is associated with virologic response to new treatments. Standardized drug resistance tests are now available, and data from some clinical trials suggest that the use of drug resistance testing may be associated with improved virologic outcome. However, drug resistance testing is complex in terms of performance, interpretation and clinical application.HIV-1 drug resistance testing is used across Europe in patient management, but not in a consistent manner. This is due to differences in the national approaches to treatment, treatment management and reimbursement, as well as availability of tests. National guidelines only exist in some countries. In addition, the laboratory quality assurance and quality control standards are not applied uniformly. The EuroGuidelines Group was established to formulate clinical as well as laboratory guidelines for the use of HIV-1 drug resistance testing that are specific for the European setting. The group is comprised of academic clinicians and virologists, scientist from the industry and representatives of the patient community.The panel of experts will review these guidelines and update them on a yearly basis as new scientific evidence becomes available.