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To determine the risk of HIV transmission by infant feeding modality.A prospective study in two hospitals in Durban, South Africa.A total of 551 HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a randomized trial of vitamin A.Women self-selected to breastfeed or formula feed after being counselled. Breastfeeders were encouraged to practice exclusive breastfeeding for 3–6 months.Cumulative probabilities of detecting HIV over time were estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods and were compared in three groups: 157 formula-fed (never breastfed); 118 exclusively breastfed for 3 months or more; and 276 mixed breastfed.The three feeding groups did not differ in any risk factors for transmission, and the probability of detecting HIV at birth was similar. Cumulative probabilities of HIV detection remained similar among never and exclusive breastfeeders up to 6 months: 0.194 (95% CI 0.136–0.260) and 0.194 (95% CI 0.125–0.274), respectively, whereas the probabilities among mixed breastfeeders soon surpassed both groups reaching 0.261 (95% CI 0.205–0.319) by 6 months. By 15 months, the cumulative probability of HIV infection remained lower among those who exclusively breastfed for 3 months or more than among other breastfeeders (0.247 versus 0.359).Infants exclusively breastfed for 3 months or more had no excess risk of HIV infection over 6 months than those never breastfed. These findings, if confirmed elsewhere, can influence public health policies on feeding choices available to HIV-infected mothers in developing countries.