Genotypic variation of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease: comparative analysis of clade C and clade B


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Abstract

ObjectiveTo compare drug-resistant variants from untreated (naive) and treated patients infected with clade B or C virus.MethodsConsecutive samples (165) from patients throughout Israel were analyzed. All those in the treated group were failing highly active antiretroviral therapy.ResultsThere were 78 clade C (20 naive) and 87 clade B (14 naive) with significant differences in the prevalence of known drug-resistance mutations between the clades: in naive patients in the protease region M36I 7% and 95% (P < 0.0001), K20R 0% and 27% (P = 0.063), A71V 18% and 0% (P = 0.063), M46I 0% and 13%, and V77I 18% and 0% (P = 0.063), respectively, and in the reverse transcriptase region A98G/S 0% and 20% (P = 0.12), respectively. Most clade C viruses also showed significant differences from clade B consensus sequence at additional protease sites: R41K 100%, H69K/Q 85%, L89M 95% and I93L 80% (P < 0.0001). There were also significant differences (P < 0.03 to < 0.0001) in treated patients in clades B and C: in the protease region L10I 40% and 12%, M36I 26% and 95%, L63P 67% and 40%, A71I 38% and 7%, G73I and V77I 18% and 0%, I84V 16% and 3%, and L90M 40% and 12%, respectively; in the reverse transcriptase M41L 41% and 17%, D67N 41% and12%, K70R 30% and 7%, T215Y 48% and 29%, K219Q 21% and 7%, and A98G/S 3% and 24%, respectively.ConclusionSignificantly differences between clade B and C viruses may be associated with development of differing resistance patterns during therapy and may affect drug utility in patients infected with clade C.

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