Increased risk of pre-eclampsia and fetal death in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy


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Abstract

Background:Pre-eclampsia and/or fetal death have increased sharply in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving HAART.Methods:The occurrence of pre-eclampsia or fetal death was analysed in women who delivered after at least 22 weeks of gestation for all women (January 2001 until July 2003) and for HIV-infected women (November 1985 until July 2003).Results:In 2001, 2002 and 2003, the rates per 1000 deliveries of pre-eclampsia and fetal death, respectively, remained stable in all pregnant women at 25.4, 31.9 and 27.7 (P = 0.48) and 4.8, 5.8, and 5.0 (P = 0.89) (n = 8768). In 1985–2000 (n = 390) to 2001–2003 (n = 82), rates per 1000 deliveries in HIV-infected women rose from 0.0 to 109.8 (P < 0.001) for pre-eclampsia and from 7.7 to 61.0 (P < 0.001) for fetal death. In all pregnant women, factors associated with pre-eclampsia or fetal death were multiple gestation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3–5.6; P < 0.001], HIV infection (adjusted OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 2.4–10.1; P < 0.001), multiparity (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58–0.98; P = 0.040) and tobacco smoking (adjusted OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46–0.90; P = 0.010). The use of HAART prior to pregnancy (adjusted OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7–18.1; P = 0.004) and tobacco smoking (adjusted OR, 0.183; 95% CI, 0.054–0.627; P = 0.007) were risk factors in HIV-infected women.Conclusions:HIV infection treated with HAART prior to pregnancy was associated with a significantly higher risk for pre-eclampsia and fetal death.

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