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To evaluate the effect of polymorphisms in interleukin-4 (IL4) and RANTES promoters on disease progression in HIV-1 infected Thais.Antiretroviral (ARV) drug-free HIV-1 infected females from the prospective cohort.A total of 246 DNA samples were genotyped for IL4 and RANTES promoter polymorphisms by PCR–RFLP. Associations of genotype with HIV-1 disease progression were assessed with respect to baseline clinical data including plasma HIV-1 load, CD4 cell counts, and proportion of symptomatic/AIDS, and survival status during 3 years of follow-up.Patients with homozygous IL4-589T allele showed a significantly lower HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.005) and a higher CD4 cell count (P = 0.003) than the other patients with heterozygous IL4-589C/T or homozygous IL4-589C allele. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated an apparent but insignificant trend towards better survival in homozygous IL4-589T patients. On the other hand, patients with RANTES-28G allele showed a significantly better survival while those with RANTES In1.1C allele without RANTES-28G showed a significantly poorer survival compared with those who did not possess either RANTES In1.1C or RANTES-28G (P = 0.02), although those polymorphisms only weakly associated with baseline viral load and CD4 cell counts.Our results implicate the significant protective effect of IL4-589T and RANTES-28G on HIV disease progression in Thais. In contrast, RANTES In1.1C without RANTES-28G had an accelerating effect on HIV disease progression.