Antiretroviral drug resistance, HIV-1 tropism, and HIV-1 subtype among men who have sex with men with recent HIV-1 infection

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Objective:Antiretroviral drug treatment may be complicated in individuals infected with antiretroviral drug-resistant or non-subtype B HIV-1 strains. HIV-1 tropism may also affect disease progression. We analyzed antiretroviral drug resistance, HIV-1 subtype, and HIV-1 tropism among 195 men who have sex with men from six major cities in the United States, using samples collected within 6 months of HIV-1 seroconversion (1999–2003).Methods:HIV-1 genotyping was performed using the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System. HIV-1 tropism was determined using a commercial assay. HIV-1 subtyping was performed by phylogenetic analysis of pol region sequences.Results:Thirty-one (15.9%) of the men had evidence of antiretroviral drug resistance. Seven (3.6%) men had multi-class resistance, including three (1.5%) with resistance to all three antiretroviral drug classes. We found no statistically significant association of antiretroviral drug resistance with demographic factors, sexual practices, self-reported sexually transmitted infections, use of recreational drugs, or use of antiretroviral drug post-exposure prophylaxis. All samples were HIV-1 subtype B. Four men had CXCR4-using HIV-1 strains. One man with a CXCR4-using strain also had antiretroviral drug resistance.Conclusions:Antiretroviral drug resistance is relatively common among recently infected men who have sex with men in the United States. CXCR4-using strains were detected in a small number of these infections, which were all subtype B HIV-1.

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