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Many studies have documented how extensively HIV-1 and related viruses interact with host cells. Virus–host interactions are of two conceptual types. First, viruses have evolved to make use of numerous host-cell functions to facilitate their own replication. Second, hosts have evolved a number of activities to inhibit virus replication. Understanding the scope and details of HIV–host interactions has been an extraordinary rich scientific endeavor, and in addition to their biomedical importance, studies in this area have established HIV as a model system in virology. Here, I present an overview of how HIV-1 interacts with some key host cell factors during its replication cycle.