Goodpasture's syndrome has characteristically been described as being mediated by IgG antibodies. We have recently seen a 55-year-old man who developed renal failure and hemoptysis; a renal biopsy showed linear deposits of IgA and C3 involving glomerular and tubular basement membrane. Serologic tests for detecting (IgG) antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were negative. Elution studies of kidney and lung showed the presence of an IgA antibasement membrane antibody only. The patient's serum contained IgA, but not IgG, antibodies reactive with glomerular and tubular basement membrane of normal human kidney and alveolar basement membrane of normal human lung. Attempts to transfer disease with the patients's IgA antibody to a monkey and to Lewis and Brown-Norway rats were unsuccessful. Immunoglobulin A antibasement membrane antibody must be considered in the design of immunoserologic procedures for the diagnosis of Goodpasture's syndrome.