The 1923 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded for the discovery of insulin to a Canadian surgeon, Frederick G. Banting, and a Scottish physiologist working in Toronto, J. J. R. Macleod. Banting promptly shared his monetary prize equally with Charles Best and Macleod with J. B. Collip. Behind this outward appearance of genial generosity, however, lay a bitterness that was never to be resolved as long as the principals were alive.
By the time the prize was announced, Banting was convinced that his rightful role in the discovery of insulin was being stolen by Macleod. During the years each of