Glycogen Storage Disease in Adults

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Abstract

Objective

To identify complications amenable to prevention in adults with glycogen storage disease (GSD) types Ia, Ib, and III and to determine the effect of the disease on social factors.

Design

Case series and clinical review.

Setting

Referral medical centers in the United States and Canada.

Patients

All patients with GSD-Ia (37 patients), GSD-Ib (5 patients), and GSD-III (9 patients) who were 18 years of age or older.

Measurements

Ultrasound or radiographic studies identified liver adenomas, nephrocalcinosis, or kidney stones. Radiographic studies identified osteopenia. Reports of the clinical examination, serum chemistry results, and social data were obtained.

Results

For patients with GSD-Ia, problems included short stature (90%), hepatomegaly (100%), hepatic adenomas (75%), anemia (81%), proteinuria or microalbuminuria (67%), kidney calcifications (65%), osteopenia or fractures or both (27%), increased alkaline phosphatase (61%) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (93%) activities, and increased serum cholesterol (76%) and triglyceride (100%) levels. Hyperuricemia was frequent (89%). Patients with GSD-Ib had severe recurrent bacterial infections and gingivitis. In patients with GSD-III, 67% (6 of 9) had increased creatinine kinase activity. Four of these patients had myopathy and cardiomyopathy.

Conclusions

For GSD-Ia, hyperuricemia and pyelonephritis should be treated to prevent nephrocalcinosis and additional renal damage. For GSD-Ib, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor may prevent bacterial infections. For GSD-III, more data are required to determine whether the myopathy and cardiomyopathy can be prevented. Most of the patients with GSD-I and GSD-III had 12 or more years of education and were either currently in school or employed.

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