NY-BR-1 was recently identified by autologous serological typing of the recombinant expression library in a breast cancer patient. Extensive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of NY-BR-1 in normal breast tissue and tumors derived thereof. Except normal testis, no other normal tissue or tumors showed NY-BR-1 expression. However, nothing is known about the expression of its actual antigen. In the present study, we describe the generation of 2 new monoclonal antibodies, NY-BR-1♯2 and NY-BR-1♯3, to NY-BR-1 for the analysis of its expression on a protein level employing recombinant NY-BR-1 protein for the immunization of BALB/c mice. In normal tissues, immunohistochemical testing demonstrates NY-BR-1 in a mostly focal fashion in the epithelia of ducts and acini of the mammary gland. No other tissue was immunopositive including testis. In tumors, homogenous staining can be seen in almost all ductal carcinomas in situ and/or the intraductal component of invasive carcinomas. Invasive carcinomas show a lower number of NY-BR-1-positive tumors. Initial higher numbers of NY-BR-1 mRNA-positive invasive carcinomas are most likely based on sample error owing to the contamination of tumor tissue with remnants of normal breast epithelium. Sweat gland carcinomas, which are related to breast cancer, are also positive in about one-third of the cases. These data indicate that NY-BR-1 is a differentiation antigen of the mammary gland that could be useful for diagnosis and/or immunotherapy of breast carcinomas.