Crizotinib Response in a Late Relapse of ALK-positive Lung Adenocarcinoma

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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is a therapeutic target in non–small cell lung cancer. To date, few reports have been provided related to ALK-rearranged late recurrence and sensitivity to the treatment with specific ALK inhibitors. We report a case of a 35-year-old man who underwent a right lower lobe lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma, and treated with the platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. After 10 healthy years, he developed a lung nodule in the same site as the previous. Cytopathologic diagnosis was lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the pulmonary nodule was considered a late recurrence in relation to the lymph node involvement, the same histotype and the site, ALK fluorescence in situ hybridization test and epidermal growth factor receptor analysis were performed on the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of the previous resected tumor, because of inadequacity cytologic sample. Being positive for ALK rearrangement, the patient was treated with crizotinib with a good response. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of a late relapse of ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma sensitive to crizotinib in the literature.

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