Transmembrane 74 (TMEM74), a transmembrane protein as an autophagy inducer, has been proven to promote tumor cell (including cervical cancer cell line HeLa and hepatic carcinoma cell line HepG2) proliferation by triggering autophagy. To further determine the role of TMEM74 in cancer, we performed immunohistochemical staining on tissue array, and the results showed that TMEM74 exhibited significantly higher expression in several tumor types, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and squamous carcinoma. Furthermore, higher expression level of TMEM74 in HepG2, A549, and H1299 cell lines were also detected compared with the corresponding normal cell lines, as detected by western blot. Meanwhile, further analysis showed that the levels of TMEM74 expression were closely correlated to survival period of patients—the higher expression of TMEM74 was correlated with shorter survival period. Moreover, the in vitro experiments showed that overexpression of TMEM74 led to accelerated proliferation of A549 and H1299 cells, while knockdown of TMEM74 reversed the outcomes. In conclusion, the results suggested that TMEM74 acts as an oncogene and a potential diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target for liver cancer and lung cancer.