Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of a Clinical Isolate of Vancomycin-Dependent Enterococcus Using D-Alanine-D-Alanine as a Growth Supplement

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Abstract

Bacteremia due to a vancomycin-dependent enterococcus (VDE) occurred during long-term vancomycin therapy in a renal transplant recipient with underlying pancreatitis and a vancomycinresistant enterococcal (VRE) wound infection and bacteremia. The VDE was isolated from blood during vancomycin therapy and grew only in the presence of vancomycin and D-alanine-D-alanine (DADA), a substance required for cell-wall synthesis. Colonies beyond the periphery of growth of the VDE around a vancomycin disk contained vancomycin-independent revertant mutants after 48 hours of incubation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the VDE, revertant mutant, the initial blood culture isolate of VRE, and an autopsy isolate showed that the four strains were identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standard macrobroth and microbroth dilution methods. DADA was used as a growth supplement for macrobroth dilution susceptibility testing of the VDE isolate. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were similar for the VRE isolate and the VDE revertant, which were both resistant to ampicillin, high-level gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, vancomycin, and daptomycin, and were susceptible to fusidic acid, high-level streptomycin, rifampin, and a quinupristin-dalfopristin combination. The MlCs of teicoplanin were 2 ug/mL or less and 16 |Jg/mL for the clinical VRE isolate and the VDE revertant, respectively. The autopsy isolate was resistant to all antimicrobials tested and showed a fourfold increase in MICs for quinupristin-dalfopristin compared with that of the original blood isolate. The VDE was susceptible to all drugs tested except vancomycin.

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