Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. Submicroscopic insertion of RARα into PML, resulting in PML-RARα from derivative chromosome 15, has been rarely reported. Herein, we describe a functional PML-RARα transcript from the long arm of derivative chromosome 17 in a patient with microgranular APL. The conventional karyotype showed normal chromosomes 15 and 17. It is interesting that interphase and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridizations demonstrated a fusion signal on the long arm of one chromosome 17 homolog, with both PML and RARα still present on chromosomes 15 and 17, respectively, although the signal on one chromosome 15 was weaker, indicating partial loss of the PML gene. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction revealed a transcript corresponding to a break cluster region 3 (bcr3) short form PML-RARα. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an APL with a bcr3/short form PML-RARα transcript generated from derivative chromosome 17 due to submicroscopic insertion of the PML gene into the RARα locus.