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Objectives: We assessed the performance of urine cytology using the Paris System for Reporting Urine Cytology (PSRUC) in comparison to our current system.Methods: In total, 124 specimens with histologic correlation were reviewed and assigned to the PSRUC categories: benign, atypical urothelial cells (AUCs), suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (SHGUC), and high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). Original cytological diagnoses were recorded.Results: Fewer cases were given an AUC diagnosis using the PSRUC in comparison to the original diagnoses (26% vs 39%), while the association of AUCs with subsequent HGUC increased from 33% to 53% with the PSRUC. Using the PSRUC resulted in a higher number of low-grade carcinomas assigned to the benign (40%) rather than the AUC (22%) category. The performance of SHGUC/HGUC diagnoses was similar in both systems (predictive value = 94%).Conclusions: The PSRUC seems to improve the performance of urine cytology by limiting the AUC category to cases that are more strongly associated with HGUC.