Recent studies have suggested that inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement in cancer patients is associated with decreased survival time after insertion. Causality, however, is yet to be understood. This study evaluates (i) the patterns of recurrence or progression of disease; and (ii) survival outcomes of ovarian cancer patients who underwent IVC filter placement.Methods:
A total of 274 patients who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery for epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers were identified for analysis. Anatomic location of the first recurrence or progression of disease, progression-free survival, and overall survival were correlated to IVC filter placement status inserted during the perioperative period.Results:
Overall, 38 (13.9%) patients underwent perioperative IVC filter insertion, of which 37 (97.4%) were permanently placed. The most common indication was newly diagnosed venous thromboembolism (VTE) (52.6%). Patients with IVC filter placement for VTE were more likely to develop subsequent deep vein thrombosis (25% vs. 7.2%, odds ratio, 4.31, 95% confidence interval, 1.40-13.3, P=0.019), have hematogenous distant metastasis as the site of first recurrence or progression of disease (12-mo hematogenous distant metastasis ratio, 45.2% vs. 13.6%, hazard ratio, 5.10, 95% confidence interval, 2.35-11.1, P<0.001, multivariate analysis), and show decreased survival outcomes (median progression-free survival, 5.7 vs. 15.3 mo, P<0.001: and median overall survival, 22.1 vs. 47.2 mo, P=0.002, both multivariate analysis) when compared with patients without IVC filter placement.Conclusions:
Our results suggested that IVC filter placement for VTE in the perioperative period of primary cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer may be associated with increased risk of hematogenous distant metastasis and resulted in decreased survival.