Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: Prognostic Factors for Disease Control and Survival

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Abstract

Objectives:

To evaluate disease control and survival after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung metastases from colorectal cancer and to identify prognostic factors after treatment.

Methods:

Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to the lungs treated with SBRT from 2002 to 2013 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patients may have received prior systemic therapy, radiotherapy to nonthoracic sites and/or resection of thoracic and/or nonthoracic metastases. Endpoints were timed from end of SBRT and included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, distant metastases-free survival, and local failure-free survival. Univariate and multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to identify prognostic factors.

Results:

Sixty-five patients were identified. Before SBRT, 69.2% and 33.8% of patients received systemic therapy and lung-directed local therapy, respectively, for metastatic disease. At the time of SBRT, 64.6% had lung-only involvement. Median survivals were: OS of 20.3 months (95% confidence intervals [CI], 15.9-27.0 mo), progression-free survival of 5.7 months (95% CI, 3.2-7.0 mo), distant metastases-free survival of 5.8 months (95% CI, 3.2-7.6 mo), and local failure-free survival of 15.4 months (95% CI, 8.5-21.1 mo). Nearly all (98%) patients developed distant progression. Extra lung and liver involvement at the time of initial metastases (hazard ratios [HR] 2.10) and extra lung involvement at SBRT (HR 2.67) were the only independent predictors of OS. Net gross target volume of >14.1 mL (HR 2.49) was the only independent predictor of local failure-free survival.

Conclusions:

Reasonable survival and local control can be achieved with SBRT. We identified several prognostic factors testable in future prospective trials that may help improve patient selection.

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