Onychocytic Carcinoma: A New Entity

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We have recently described a new nail tumor known as onychocytic matricoma. Herein, we describe its malignant counterpart. Clinically, the tumor simulates onychomatricoma (OM). Histologically, this in situ malignant epithelial tumor exhibits a distinct picture of onychocytic differentiation with signs of both nail matrical differentiation and nail plate differentiation. We have proposed the name onychocytic carcinoma for this singular adnexal neoplasm. Given the peculiar thickening of the nail plate observed in OM, onychocytic matricoma, and onychocytic carcinoma, the clinical individualization of a new type of nail band pattern could be proposed. It presents as an acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal pachyonychia. Such longitudinal pachyonychia allow the recognition of the matrical nail tumor, which has a limited etiological spectrum. Xantholeucopachyonychia suggests mainly OM and rarely onychocytic carcinoma. Pachymelanonychia suggests onychocytic matricoma and rarely pigmented OM or onychocytic carcinoma.

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