Cutaneous Emboli of Invasive Basidiomycosis in a Child With Aplastic Anemia

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Invasive fungal diseases are a significant cause of mortality among the immunocompromised. This report documents an unusual case of disseminated fungal infection in a child with severe aplastic anemia. The offending fungus, a Basidiomycete, is rarely known to cause human infections. The patient presented acutely with multiple purpuric skin lesions in various parts of the body. The skin biopsy revealed septated fungal hyphae embolized within small dermal blood vessels. Molecular sequencing indicated Earliella scabrosa as the likely organism. The clinical course of the infection was inexorable despite systemic antifungal treatment, resulting in mortality. The literature of human infections due to Basidiomycetes, the usefulness of histopathology in the early diagnosis of the infection, and possible treatment options are discussed.

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